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Σάββατο, 21 Μαΐου 2016

Amorpha fruticosa- μια διαφορετική ακακία-ένα ενδιαφέρον μελισσοκομικό φυτό

Amorpha fruticosa
Amorpha fruticosa 05.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Amorpha
Species: A. fruitcosa
Binomial name
Amorpha fruticosa
L.
Synonyms
Amorpha angustifolia F.E.Boynton
Amorpha arizonica Rydb.
Amorpha bushii Rydb.
Amorpha croceolanata Watson
Amorpha curtissii Rydb.
Amorpha dewinkeleri Small
Amorpha emarginata Sweet
Amorpha emarginata Eastw.
Amorpha fragrans Sweet
Amorpha humilis Tausch
Amorpha occidentalis Abrams
Amorpha pendula Carriere
Amorpha tennesseensis Kunze
Amorpha virgata Small
Amorpha fruticosa is a species of flowering plant in the legume family (Fabaceae) known by several common names, including desert false indigo, false indigo-bush, and bastard indigobush. It is found wild in most of the contiguous United States, southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico, but it is probably naturalized in the northeastern and northwestern portion of its current range. The species is also present as an introduced species in Europe,[1] Asia, and other continents. It is often cultivated as an ornamental plant, and some wild populations may be descended from garden escapes.

Flowers
A. fruticosa grows as a glandular, thornless shrub which can reach 5 or 6 meters in height and spread to twice that in width. It is somewhat variable in morphology. The leaves are made up of many hairy, oval-shaped, spine-tipped leaflets. The inflorescence is a spike-shaped raceme of many flowers, each with a single purple petal and ten protruding stamens with yellow anthers. The fruit is a legume pod containing one or two seeds.
6'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-12a-hydroxydalpanol, a rotenoid, can be found in the fruits of A. fruticosa.[2] Several members of the amorfrutin class of compounds have been isolated from the fruits.[3]
















 


 






Cultivars

  • 'Albiflora', with white flowers.
  • 'Crispa', with curled leaves.
  • 'Lewisii', with narrow leaves.
  • 'Pendula', with arching branches, forming a dome shape.





This honey is a rarity. L ' Amorpha fruticosa is a shrubby plant that blooms after the acacia and produces a very sweet honey, with a cooked fruit connotation.
Honey Amorpha fruticosa I suggest, organic beekeeping The hills of Buttrio, is very little known and very special. In Friuli Venezia Giulia, the Amorpha very well take root, to become weed sometimes. Honey Amorpha fruticosa of Buttrio (UD), last year, ranked second in the national contest "Roberto Franci" held at the Fortezza di Montalcino and rewards the best honeys of Italy and the Mediterranean *.
  
 Το μέλι είναι κάτι σπάνιο. L ' αμορφα fruticosa είναι μια θαμνώδης φυτό που ανθίζει μετά την ακακία και παράγει ένα πολύ γλυκό μέλι, με μαγειρεμένα χροιά φρούτα.

Μέλι αμορφα fruticosa προτείνω, βιολογική μελισσοκομία Οι λόφοι της Buttrio, είναι πολύ λίγο γνωστά και πολύ ιδιαίτερο. Σε Friuli Venezia Giulia, η αμορφα πολύ καλά ριζώσει, να γίνει ζιζανίων μερικές φορές. Μέλι αμορφα fruticosa της Buttrio (UD), το περασμένο έτος, κατέλαβε τη δεύτερη θέση στον εθνικό διαγωνισμό "Roberto Franci" που πραγματοποιήθηκε στο Fortezza di Montalcino και επιβραβεύει τα καλύτερα μέλια της Ιταλίας και της Μεσογείου *. 

 The plant habit shrub , leaves compound imparipinnate, similar to those of the locust , with which it is confused, and flowers abundant, violet and rich in pollen, gathered in racemes terminal.
The fruits are small legumes

Είναι μελισσοκομικό φυτό με πολύ γύρη και βιολετί άνθη. Οι ανθήρες των στημόνων  είναι λαμπερά πορτοκαλο- κίτρινοι.
Η περίοδος της άνθησης εναι αργα την άνοιξη-αρχες καλοκαιριού και η διάρκεια εναι 2-3 βδομάδες!!

 Το φυτό έχει προέλευση την Βόρεια Αμερική, έχει εγκλιματιστεί στην Ιταλία σε δύσκολα περιβάλλοντα και κάποιες φορές θεωρείται  παράσιτο(ζιζάνιο) .

Στην Ελλάδα υπάρχει σε παραποτάμιες περιοχές Σερρών και Έβρου.

Το παρατσούκλι ακακία η Βουλγάρα!!

The plant of origin North American , it is very well acclimatized in Italy, much to occupy diverse environments, and sometimes become a pest. 

Θέλει ηλιόλουστα με ρη, αντέχει στο κρύο.

 Grows well in sunny places, it bear the cold well.
Uses
It is a dyeing plant and mellifera. 



References





  • DAISIE (2009). Handbook of Alien Species in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 399. ISBN 978-1-4020-8279-5.

  • Effect of new rotenoid glycoside from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE on the growth of human immune cells. Hak Ju Lee, Ha Young Kang, Cheol Hee Kim, Hyo Sung Kim, Min Chul Kwon, Sang Moo Kim, Il Shik Shin and Hyeon Yong Lee, Cytotechnology, Volume 52, Number 3, 219-226, doi:10.1007/s10616-006-9040-5


    1. Weidner, C.; De Groot, J. C.; Prasad, A.; Freiwald, A.; Quedenau, C.; Kliem, M.; Witzke, A.; Kodelja, V.; Han, C.-T.; Giegold, S.; Baumann, M.; Klebl, B.; Siems, K.; Muller-Kuhrt, L.; Schurmann, A.; Schuler, R.; Pfeiffer, A. F. H.; Schroeder, F. C.; Bussow, K.; Sauer, S. (2012). "Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (19): 7257. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109.7257W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1116971109.

    Αmorpha is a genus of plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. All the species are native to North America, from southern Canada, most of the United States, and northern Mexico. They are commonly known as false indigo. The name Amorpha means "deformed" or "without form" in Greek and was given because flowers of this genus only have one petal, unlike the usual "pea-shaped" flowers of the Faboideae subfamily. Amorpha is missing the wing and keel petals.[2]
    The desert false indigo or indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa), is a shrub that grows from 3 m to 5 m tall. The species is considered a rare species in the U.S. state of West Virginia and in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, but is considered an invasive plant in some areas of the northeastern and northwestern United States and in southeastern Canada, beyond its native range, and has also been introduced into Europe.
    The lead plant (Amorpha canescens), a bushy shrub, is an important North American prairie legume. Lead plant is often associated with little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), a common prairie grass. Native Americans used the dried leaves of lead plant for pipe smoking and tea.
    Amorpha species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Schinia lucens, which feeds exclusively on the genus.
    Amorphol, a rotenoid bioside, can be isolated from plants of the genus Amorpha.[3]

    Contents

    Species

    Amorpha comprises the following species:[4][5][6]

    Flowers of Amorpha fruticosa

    Species names with uncertain taxonomic status

    The status of the following species is unresolved:[6]
    • Amorpha arborea Schkuhr
    • Amorpha californica Nutt.
    • Amorpha coerulea Lodd.
    • Amorpha colorata Raf.
    • Amorpha crocea hort. ex Lavallée
    • Amorpha dealbata hort. ex Lavallée
    • Amorpha discolor Raf.
    • Amorpha elata Hayne
    • Amorpha elatior hort. ex Lavallée
    • Amorpha flexuosa Raf.
    • Amorpha gaertneri K.Koch
    • Amorpha gardneri K.Koch
    • Amorpha glauca Raf.
    • Amorpha incana Engelm.
    • Amorpha laevigata Nutt.
    • Amorpha lewisii Lodd. ex Loudon
    • Amorpha ludoviciana hort. ex Lavallée
    • Amorpha ludwigii K.Koch
    • Amorpha lutea Raf.
    • Amorpha macrophyla Raf.
    • Amorpha marginata hort. ex Lavallée
    • Amorpha mimosifolia Voss
    • Amorpha nana Nutt.
    • Amorpha nonperforata Schkuhr
    • Amorpha ornata Wender.
    • Amorpha pedalis Blanco
    • Amorpha perforata Schkuhr
    • Amorpha rabiae Lex.
    • Amorpha retusa Raf.
    • Amorpha sensitiva Voss
    • Amorpha tenesseensis Schult.
    • Amorpha tomentosa Raf.
    • Amorpha verrucosa Raf.

    Hybrids

    The following hybrid has been described:[6]
    • Amorpha ×notha E.J. Palmer

    References







  • Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.

  • Gledhill D. (2008). The Names of Plants. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86645-6. Retrieved 24 December 2008.

  • Kasymov AU, Kondratenko ES, Abubakirov NK. (1974). "Structure of amorphol—A rotenoid bioside from plants of the genus Amorpha". Chem Nat Compd 10 (4): 470–473. doi:10.1007/BF00563810.

  • "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Amorpha". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 7 July 2014.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Amorpha". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 7 July 2014.

  • "The Plant List entry for Amorpha". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2014.


    1. Some sources treat Amorpha crenulata as a synonym (variety) of Amorpha herbacea.

    False Indigo
    Amorpha fruticosa
    Bean family (Fabaceae)
    Description: This is a shrub about 4-16' tall that branches occasionally. The lower stems are woody; the gray bark is relatively smooth with scattered small lenticels. The upper stems are dull light green and pubescent. The alternate leaves are about ½–1½' long and odd-pinnate with 11-35 leaflets; they have relatively short petioles up to 2" long. Both the petioles and central stalks of the leaves are light gray-green and pubescent. Individual leaflets are 1-2" long and ½–1" across; they are dull gray-green, oblong to broadly oblong, smooth along their margins, and sparsely canescent-pubescent. From the leaflet undersides, scattered translucent glands are visible that resemble small dots. Each leaflet has a tiny pointed tip. The petiolules of the leaflets are slender and short. Occasionally, clusters of 1-6 spike-like racemes of flowers develop from the upper branches. Individual racemes are erect to ascending, 3-8" long, and cylindrical in shape from the dense arrangement of flowers. Each flower is ¼" long (or a little more) and tubular in shape from a single violet-purple petal (the standard) that wraps around the reproductive organs; there is a single style and about 10 stamens that are strongly exerted. The anthers of the stamens are bright orange-yellow. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer and lasts about 2-3 weeks. The flowers are replaced by small seedpods about ¼" long (or a little more) that each contain 1-2 seeds. The seedpods are obovoid and somewhat flattened, terminating in short beaks; their outer surfaces are glandular-punctate. The root system is woody and branching. Sometimes small colonies of plants develop at favorable sites.

    Cultivation: The preference is full or partial sun and wet to moist conditions. False Indigo adapts to different kinds of soil, tolerating occasional flooding. With the assistance of symbiotic bacteria, it fixes nitrogen in the ground.

    Range & Habitat: The native False Indigo is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include riverbanks, soggy thickets, open bottomland woodlands, edges of marshland, and wet prairies along rivers. It is likely that populations of this shrub have been declining because of habitat destruction.

    Faunal Associations: The flowers are pollinated primarily by small to medium-sized bees, which seek nectar and pollen. These bee visitors include Halictid bees (Lasioglossum spp.), masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.), little carpenter bees (Ceratina spp.), and cuckoo bees (Nomada spp., Coelioxys spp.). The Andrenid bee, Andrena quintilis, is a specialist pollinator (oligolege) of Amorpha spp., including False Indigo. The caterpillars of Epargyreus clarus (Silver-spotted Skipper), the butterfly Colias cesonia (Dogface Sulfur), and the moth Dasylophia anguina (Black-spotted Prominent) feed on foliage of False Indigo, while caterpillars of the moth Pleuroprucha insulsaria (Common Tan Wave) feed on the flowers. Other insects that feed on this shrub include the lace bug Gargaphia amorphae, the plant bugs Psallus amorphae and Lopidea hesperus, and branch-boring larvae of the long-horned beetle Megacyllene decora. There are also several leaf beetles that feed on the leaves (Anomoea flavokansiensis, Anomoea laticlavia, Odontota dorsalis, Phyllecthris dorsalis, and Sumitrosis rosea). White-tailed Deer browse on this shrub sparingly.

    Photographic Location: Edge of a marsh at Judge Weaver Park in Urbana, Illinois.

    Comments: False Indigo looks like a Leadplant (Amorpha canescens) on steroids. It is taller than the latter shrub and its leaflets are larger in size. In southern Illinois and other southern regions, there is some variability in the size, shape, and hairiness of the leaflets. As a result, different varieties of False Indigo have been described, but most of them are rare in Illinois; only the typical variety is occasional throughout the state. Another shrub with a similar appearance, Amorpha nitens (Shiny False Indigo), has shiny leaflets that are hairless (or nearly so). This rare shrub can be found in southern Illinois, but it is absent from the rest of the state. Other common names of Amorpha fruticosa are Indigo Bush and River Locust.
     1

    Τρίτη, 10 Μαΐου 2016

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